Muhammadiyah Student Association
IMM (Ikatan Mahasiswa Muhammadiyah)(Muhammadiyah Student Association)
is an Islamic student organization in Indonesia that has a structural relationship with Muhammadiyah organizations with an autonomous organization. Has the aim of forming a noble Islamic academician in order to achieve the goals of Muhammadiyah.
The existence of IMM in Muhammadiyah tertiary institutions has been clearly regulated in Qoidah in Chapter 10 Article 39 Paragraph 3: “Student Organizations within the Muhammadiyah College are the Student Senate and Muhammadiyah Student Association (IMM)”. Whereas in other high school campuses, IMM moves with the status of extra-campus organizations as well as the Islamic Student Association and KAMMI with members of students who have previously attended Muhammadiyah schools.
The Muhammadiyah Student Association (IMM) was established in Yogyakarta on March 14, 1964, to coincide with the 29th of Syawwal 1384 H. Compared to other autonomous organizations in Muhammadiyah, the most recent IMM was formed. Other autonomous organizations such as Nasyiatul `Aisyiyah (NA) were established on May 16, 1931 (28 Dzulhijjah 1349 H); The Muhammadiyah Youth was formed on May 2, 1932 (25 Dhulhijjah 1350 H); and the Muhammadiyah Student Association (IPM, whose name was changed to the Muhammadiyah Youth Association [IRM]) was established on July 18, 1961 (5 Shaffar 1381 H).
The birth of IMM and its existence until now is quite loaded with history that lies behind it, coloring it, and at the same time it lives. In the context of the life of the people and nation, the dynamics of the Muhammadiyah movement and its autonomous organization, as well as the lives of existing student organizations, it can be said that IMM has its own unique history. This is because the history of the birth of IMM does not escape from a variety of different judgments and acknowledgments and it is not uncommon for some to corner them from certain parties. This unappreciative view of the IMM is related to the activities and involvement of IMM in the upheaval of the Indonesian history in the mid-1960s; and concerning the existence of the Islamic Student Association (HMI) at that time.
When the IMM was formally formed, it coincided with the days of the HMI which was being heavily attacked by the PKI and CGMI and threatened to be dissolved by the Soekarno regime. So that the assumption and mistaken perception emerged that IMM was established to accommodate and accommodate HMI members if they were dissolved. Logically, in this misperception, because the HMI does not dissolve, the IMM does not need to be established. The assumption and claims that IMM was born because HMI will be dissolved, according to Noor Chozin Agham, is wrong and less intelligent in interpreting facts and historical data. On the contrary, one of the historical factors in the birth of IMM was to help the existence of the HMI and to help defend it from the PKI undermining who wanted it to be dissolved.
An appreciative assessment of the birth of IMM can also be read in the answer to the question Victor I. Tanja. In his book Tanja questions: Perhaps we will be surprised, why does Muhammadiyah consider it necessary to form its own student organization? From one of the members of the HMI (which was not mentioned or mentioned his name) came the answer, that during the previous President Soekarno’s administration to obtain approval from him, an organization must be able to prove that it has strong support from the wider community. To fulfill this requirement, not only Muhammadiyah, but all social political movements in the country must form as many supporting organizations as possible.
Actually there are two integral factors that form the basis and historical background for the establishment of IMM, namely internal factors and external factors. What is meant by internal factors are factors that exist and exist within the Muhmmadiyah organization itself. While external factors are things and circumstances that come from and outside Muhammadiyah, namely the situation and conditions of life of the people and the nation and the dynamics of the movements of student organizations.
Internal factors are actually more dominant in the form of idealistic motivation from within, namely the urge to develop the ideology, understanding, and ideals of Muhammadiyah. To realize its ideals and reflect on its ideology, Muhammadiyah must intersect and interact with various layers and groups of diverse society. There are farmers, traders, bureaucrats, intellectuals, professionals, students. and sbaginya
The interaction and contact of Muhammadiyah with students to realize their aims and objectives, the way and strategy is not to directly plunge and influence it on college campuses. But the way is by providing and forming a special forum that can attract interest and develop the potential of students. The presumption about the importance of the container for students was born at the 25th Congress of Muhammadiyah (Congress of the Quarter of the Birth of Muhammadiyah) in 1936 in Jakarta. On that occasion the great aspirations of Muhammadiyah were also established to establish Muhammadiyah universities or colleges.
However, the desire to gather and foster Muhammadiyah students could not immediately be realized, because at that time Muhammadiyah did not yet have its own university. To bridge it, students who agree, or have the same mind, with Muhammadiyah are accommodated in existing autonomous organizations such as NA and Pemuda Muhammadiyah, and not a few are involved in HMI. On November 18, 1955, Muhammadiyah was only able to realize its ideals to establish a tertiary institution which he had long established in 1936, namely the establishment of the Faculty of Law and Philosophy in Padang Panjang. In 1958, a similar faculty was built in Surakarta; then in Yogyakarta stood the Tabligh Muhammadiyah Academy; and the Faculty of Social Sciences in Jakarta, which later developed into the University of Muhammadiyah Jakarta. However, the aspirations to form an organization for Muhammadiyah students could not be formed at that time. The main obstacle was that Muhammadiyah, who at that time was still a special member of Masyumi, was bound by the Eternal Muslim Pledge which was initiated on December 25, 1949, one of which stated that the only Islamic student organization was HMI.
Since the activities of higher education or Muhammadiyah tertiary institutions developed in the 1960s, it was once again the idea of the need for an organization that specifically accommodated and handled students. Meanwhile, ahead of the Half-Century Muhammadiyah Conference in Jakarta in 1962, Muhammadiyah college students held a Muhammadiyah Student Congress in Yogyakarta. From this congress the efforts to form a special organization for Muhammadiyah students re-emerged. On December 15, 1963 an assessment was held to establish the Student Da’wah Institution whose idea came from Drs. Mohammad Djazman, and then coordinated by Ir. Margono, Dr. Soedibjo Markoes, and Drs. A. Rosyad Sholeh.
The encouragement to immediately form a forum for Muhammadiyah students also came from Muhammadiyah students in Jakarta such as Nurwijoyo Sarjono, M.Z. Suherman, M. Yasin, Sutrisno Muhdam and others. With so much pressure and encouragement, the PP Muhammadiyah Youth at that time M. Fachrurrazi as General Chair and M. Djazman Al Kindi as General Secretary proposed to the PP Muhammadiyah, which was then chaired by K.H. Ahmad Badawi to establish a special organization for students who were given the name Muhammadiyah Student Association at the suggestion of Drs. Mohammad Djazman who was, and then approved by PP Muhammadiyah and inaugurated on March 14, 1964 (29 Syawwal 1384). The inauguration of the IMM was held in the Dinoto building in Yogyakarta; and marked by the signing of “Six Affirmations of IMM” by K.H. Ahmad Badawi, which reads:
1. Affirming that IMM is an Islamic student movement;
2. Affirming that the personality of Muhammadiyah is the cornerstone of the IMM struggle;
3. Affirming that science is amaliah and amala is scientific;
4. Affirms that the IMM charity is the release of Ta’ala and is always devoted to the interests of the people.
While the external factors of the establishment of IMM are related to the situations and conditions of life outside and around Muhammadiyah. This is at least related to the condition of Muslims, the life of the nation and state of the Indonesian people, and the dynamics of the student movement.
The situation and life of Muslims at that time was still filled with traditions, understandings, and beliefs that were not in accordance with the true teachings of Islam. The religious beliefs and practices of Muslims, including students, are mixed with superstitions, bidah, and khurafat.
Meanwhile in the life of the nation and state it is also being threatened by the influence of communist ideology (PKI), backwardness, poverty, ignorance, and power conflicts between groups and political parties. So that, even though at that time Indonesia had been independent for approximately 20 years, it could not reflect the meaning and ideals of the proclamation of independence. Democracy and popular sovereignty were confined, while the tyranny of power and authoritarianism was rampant due to Soekarno’s guided democracy policy.
The state of Indonesian politics around the beginning of the mid-1960s, Cosmas Batubara wrote, was very interesting. Many political observers say that political development and life at that time was colored by three very dominant political actors, namely: the personal self of President Soekarno; ABRI (especially the Army); and PKI. These three political forces strongly color and influence the behavior and orientation of the life of the nation, and state in various layers and groups of society. Among student organizations, political orientation and behavior are also divided into three dominant forces. Student organizations that sharply followed President Soekarno’s line were GMNI, and those that were in line with the ABRI line were HMI, PMKRI, and SOMAL (Secretariat of Local Student Organizations). Whereas those who followed and supported the PKI line were CGMI (Concentration of the Indonesian Student Movement). In the midst of the turmoil and conflict of the political lines, the upheaval of student organizations up to the G30S 1965 appeared to be deadlocked in maintaining its participation in the era of Indonesian independence. At that time since the Indonesian Student Congress in Malang on June 8, 1947, student organizations such as HMI, PMKRI (Catholic Student Association of the Republic of Indonesia), PMKI (Indonesian Christian Student Fellowship; which in 1950 turned into GMKI [Indonesian Christian Student Movement ]), PMJ (Jogjakarta Student Association), PMD (Djakarta Student Association), MMM (Malang Student Society), PMKH (Association of Veterinary Students), and SMI (Indonesian Student Union) fuse into PPMI (Association of Indonesian Student Associations) ) which is independent. The independence of the PPMI as a mobilizer of anti-imperialist forces at first went hand in hand. But after holding the Asian-African Student Conference (KMAA) in Bandung in 1957 — which became the peak achievement of PPMI — each organization then broke away. This is because in 1958 PPMI received CGMI, smuggled PKI, which then launched an intervention to influence other student organizations to leave PPMI. Finally, because of the strong influence and intervention of the CGMI, each organization within the PPMI broke away. In October 1965, after the PKI was paralyzed, PPMI finally officially disbanded. The goal of the CGMI movement was actually to dominate the student movement and campus life and wanted to get rid of Islamic student organizations such as HMI.
Indeed, before the PPMI disbanded, between 1964 and 1965 each of the fused student organizations in it acted as a revolutionary. In the end HMI was not left behind to become part of the revolutionary power. According to Deliar Noer, at that time HMI loudly sang the humming of Guided Democracy. Sukarno’s slogans began to be echoed like “Nasakom my soul”, “revolutionary”, and “crush Malaysia”. Even in 1964 the HMI dismissed several members of its advisor who had been alumni because it was not in accordance with the revolution. HMI also strongly condemned Kasman Singodimedjo who was facing a trial in Bogor and demanded that he be punished with the utmost severity if guilty.
Although the HMI had tried to show its existence as part of a revolutionary force, but still HMI was targeted by CGMI and / or PKI to be dissolved. At the time when HMI was pressed it was the Muhammadiyah student association born on March 14, 1964 (29 Syawal 1384 H). That is why a false perception emerged that IMM was formed as a preparation to accommodate HMI members if it was disbanded. This wrong perception is related to the close relationship between HMI and Muhammadiyah. As is known that the HMI was originally founded and raised by Muhammadiyah people, then if the HMI was dissolved Muhammadiyah must provide another container.
This perception is wrong, because the birth of IMM, one of the historical factors is precisely to help and maintain the existence of HMI so that it does not work with the PKI’s efforts to dissolve it. Because, if the IMM birth was intended to replace HMI if it was dissolved, then IMM did not need to bother being involved in acting against the PKI who would dissolve the HMI. Among the preconceived notions of the presence of IMM in the history of the student movement is the fact that the birth of IMM is very close — even though the basic idea has been around since 1936 with the G30S / PKI event. So the question arises (who is suing), why the newly born IMM has been directly involved in national events and great history in the struggle of the nation against and destroying the PKI. In 1965, IMM also joined in the container Kami (Indonesian Student Action Unit), and Slamet Sukirnanto, one of the leaders of the IMM DPP, when it was formed WE became one of the Chairmen of OUR Central Presidium. IMM itself in its early days did not escape the threat and terror of the PKI. The evil reaction from the PKI to the birth of the IMM did not only occur in the center, but also in the regions. To save the existence of the newly established IMM, on the occasion of an audience and friendship with President Soekarno at the State Palace in Jakarta on February 14, 1965, the IMM DPP requested his blessing. “I gave my blessing to the Muhammadijah Student Association”, said the statement signed by President Soekarno. Because IMM is an internal and external need for Muhammadiyah, the figures of the Muhammadiyah Youth Pemuda who previously joined HMI returned, as well as to foster and develop IMM. In this case, there were also claims and wrong perceptions that IMM was born by HMI. Muhammadiyah Youth leaders especially those involved in developing HMI, because at that time there was no IMM. While their involvement in HMI was to develop the ideology of Muhammadiyah. The proof is that for a long time in HMI, it turned out that the HMI that had been entered by students from various circles of Islamic organizations was ultimately different from the orientation of Muhammadiyah. Therefore it is natural that in the end they will return to Muhammadiyah as well as participate in developing IMM. This is like what happened in Yogyakarta, Jakarta, Riau, Padang, Ujungpandang and others. It should also be noted that the leaders of PP Pemuda Muhammadiyah and NA who were involved in working on the establishment of IMM from the beginning until the establishment were those who really had never been involved in HMI. The establishment of IMM on the basis of its historical journey is due to the demands and historical necessity (historical nessecity) in the context of the life of the people, the nation, and the state and the dynamics of the student movement in Indonesia. The purpose of the establishment of IMM is:
1. Also maintaining dignity and defending the glory of the nation;
2. Upholding and upholding the religion of Islam;
3. In an effort to sustain, sustain and continue the ideals of the founding of Muhammadiyah;
4. As a pioneer, continuation, and perfection of the ideals of reform and Muhammadiyah’s business charity;
5. Fostering, enhancing, and combining faith and science and charity in the life of the nation, the people, and
Dynamics of the Muhammadiyah Student Association Like other organizations, in its historical career IMM experienced the dynamics of ups and downs and ups and downs. For more than three and a half decades, IMM has experienced four periods of movement. First, the period of upheaval and stabilization (1964-1971). Second, the development period (1971-1975). Third, the challenge period (1975-1985). Fourth, the awakening period (1985-?).
In this period of upheaval and consolidation, the very young IMM must face social, political, economic and cultural situations and conditions in the midst of a very vulnerable and critical nation, state and religious life. IMM at that time immediately faced Manipol Usdek Bung Karno, Nasakom, and PKI threats. During this period IMM activities were directed more towards building personnel, strengthening organizations, establishing and developing IMM in cities and colleges. In this period the pattern of movement, the principle of struggle and the organization of the IMM were successfully established.
During this period three times the National Conference (Congress) and four National Conferences (Tanwir) were held and five IMM leadership formations were formed. During this period Mohammad Djazman Al-Kindi continued to be Chairman of the IMM DPP. The first pre-National Conference (Provisional DPP) leadership took place from 1964-1965, with its Chairman Mohammad Djazman Al-Kindi. The second leadership (1965-1967) was the result of National Conference I in Surakarta (May 1, 1965). Chairperson: Mohammad Djazman Al-Kindi; and Secretary General: A. Rosyad Sholeh. The third leadership was the result of the reshuffle in mid-1966, the Chairperson generally remained; and Soedibjo Markoes became Acting Secretary General. The fourth leadership (1967-1969) results of National Conference II in Banjarmasin (26-30 November 1967), permanent Chairperson; and his Secretary General is Syamsu Udaya Nurdin. The fifth leadership result of the reshuffle at Konfernas in Magelang (July 1-4, 1970), the General Chairperson still remains; while the Secretary General is Bahransyah Usman.
Besides Djazman, other well-known early IMM figures include: A. Rosyad Sholeh, Soedibjo Markoes, Mohammad Arief, Sutrisno Muhdam, Zulkabir, Syamsu Udaya Nurdin, Nurwijoyo Sarjono, Basri Tambun, Fathurrahman, Soemarwan, Ali Kyai Demak, Sudar , M. Husni Thamrin, M. Susanto, Siti Ramlah, Deddy Abu Bakar, Slamet Sukirnanto, M. Amien Rais, Yahya Muhaimin, Abuseri Dimyati, Marzuki Usman, Abdul Hadi WM Machnun Husein, etc.
The role and will of the IMM to strengthen and establish its existence significantly in the context of the life of the nation and state and for the interests of the ummah and Muhammadiyah during this period stood out, both through statements of declarations – such as the 1965 West Declaration and the 1967 Garut Declaration – and activities and articulation of his movements. From 1971-1975 it was referred to as the development period, because the problems involving the consolidation of leaders and organizations were not too much questioned. The orientation of the activities and dynamics of the IMM movement has started to be directed towards the development of organizations such as through social, economic and educational programs. The dynamics of the IMM movement strengthens IMM’s concern about the problems of the lives of students, the ummah and the nation amidst social turmoil and the modernization of development. This is for example as stated in the Baiturrahman Declaration in 1975, as well as in the results of the formulation of thoughts from the National Conference and IMM Conference. In this period there was only one leadership succession at the DPP IMM level. National Conference III in Yogyakarta (March 14-19 1971) produced A. Rosyad Sholeh as General Chairperson; and Machnun Husein as Secretary General. Then Konfernas V in Padang decided to add additional personnel to the IMP staff, namely: Alfian Darmawan, Abbas Sani, Maksum Saidrum, Ajeng Kartini, Dahlan Rais, Ahmad Syaichu, and Arief Hasbu.
In this period there were also important events that characterized the existence of the IMM, namely in terms of the formation of the Indonesian Youth National Committee and the Malari incident (Fifteen Plagues of January 1974). At that time IMM was not recognized as one of the originators of the birth of the KNPI (July 23, 1973), because it did not participate in signing the Indonesian Youth Declaration as the basis for the founding of the KNPI. Meanwhile, the maker and formulator of the Indonesian Youth Declaration was Slamet Sukirnanto, one of the members of the IMM DPP, who at that time was not willing to sign the declaration on behalf of IMM. The absence of Slamet Sukirnanto signed the declaration, because the formation of the container of the young generation was originally individual and merely as a forum for communication between the younger generation and its personal membership. But it turns out that at the time of signing must be in the name of the organization. In this case the problem lies. Organically, Slamet Sukirnanto refused to sign the declaration, but he was personally willing. When the Malari incident happened – which resulted in repressive actions against the student movement -, on January 16, 1974 the IMM sent a letter to President Soeharto to hold a referendum in an effort to find objective truths about the policies carried out by the government. This effort is expected to be able to maintain the integrity of the unity and the interests of the greater nation and state not to become victims of policy holders. In facing the Malari action, IMM hopes that the government does not quell the aspirations and idealism of students.
Among the ideas and ideas of IMM in this period were education. In this case IMM realizes that education is a business “human investment” that is important for painting and coloring the future of the nation. Education is one of the most important elements to grow and foster the nation’s mental attitude. Then regarding the problem of student organizations, IMM believes that its existence must function as a cadre organization and at the same time preaching. Therefore student organizations must adhere to the principles of potential, participation, flexibility and simplicity.
Whereas in the case of the younger generation, IMM is educated that its development must always be linked to a long-term national development strategy. For this reason, there is a need to mix the concept of the younger generation as a continuation with the concept of the younger generation as a reformer. Similarly, the combination of the understanding of cadres and pioneers.